Amazon RDS metrics

This page lists the RDS metrics collected by the AWS Integration. You may wish to navigate this page using the Contents located in the right sidebar, or search for a metric of interest.

RDS instance metrics

For all RDS instances

These metrics apply to all RDS instances. Some details may differ by the engine, as noted in the description.

Metric

Description

BinLogDiskUsage

Binary Log Disk Usage

The amount of disk space occupied by binary logs. If you enabled autobackups for MySQL and MariaDB instances, including read replicas, RDS creates binary logs.

CPUUtilization

CPU Utilization

The percentage of CPU utilization.

CPUCreditBalance

CPU Credit Balance

For T2 instances: the number of CPU credits spent by the instance for CPU utilization. One CPU credit equals one vCPU running at 100 percent utilization for one minute or an equivalent combination of vCPUs, utilization, and time. For example, you might have one vCPU running at 50 percent utilization for two minutes or two vCPUs running at 25 percent utilization for two minutes.

RDS provides CPU credit metrics only at a five-minute frequency. If you specify a period greater than five minutes, use the Sum statistic instead of the Average statistic.

For Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL: this metric applies only to db.t2.small and db.t2.medium instances for Aurora MySQL, and to db.t3 instances for Aurora PostgreSQL.

RDS provides CPU credit metrics only at a five-minute frequency.

CPUCreditUsage

CPU Credit Usage

For T2 instances: the number of earned CPU credits that an instance has accrued since it launched or started.

For T2 Standard: the CPUCreditBalance also includes the number of accrued launch credits.

Credits accrue in the credit balance after earning them and removed from the credit balance when spent.

The credit balance has a maximum limit, determined by the instance size. After the limit is reached, any new credits that are earned are discarded. For T2 Standard, launch credits don’t count towards the limit.

The credits in the CPUCreditBalance are available for the instance to spend to burst beyond its baseline CPU utilization. When an instance is running, credits in the CPUCreditBalance don’t expire. When the instance stops, the CPUCreditBalance does not persist, and all accrued credits are lost.

RDS provides CPU credit metrics only at a five-minute frequency.

For Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL: this metric applies only to db.t2.small and db.t2.medium instances for Aurora MySQL, and to db.t3 instances for Aurora PostgreSQL.

DatabaseConnections

DB Connections

The number of client network connections to the database instance.

The number of database sessions can be higher than the metric value because the metric value doesn’t include the following:

  • Sessions that no longer have a network connection but which the database hasn’t cleaned up

  • Sessions created by the database engine for related purposes.

  • Sessions created by the database engine’s parallel execution capabilities.

  • Sessions created by the database engine job scheduler.

  • Amazon RDS connections

  • Amazon Aurora connections

DiskQueueDepth

Queue Depth

The number of outstanding I/Os (read/write requests) waiting to access the disk.

EBSByteBalance%

EBS Byte Balance Percent

The percentage of throughput credits remaining in the burst bucket of your RDS database. This metric is available for basic monitoring only.

To find the instance sizes that support this metric, see the instance sizes with an asterisk (*) in the EBS optimized by default table in Amazon EC2 User Guide for Linux Instances. The Sum statistic is not applicable to this metric.

EBSIOBalance%

EBS I/O Balance Percent

The percentage of I/O credits remaining in the burst bucket of your RDS database. This metric is available for basic monitoring only.

To find the instance sizes that support this metric, see the instance sizes with an asterisk (*) in the EBS optimized by default table in Amazon EC2 User Guide for Linux Instances. The Sum statistic is not applicable to this metric.

This metric is different from BurstBalance. To learn how to use this metric, see Improving application performance and reducing costs with Amazon EBS-Optimized Instance burst capability in the AWS documentation.

FailedSQLServerAgentJobsCount

Failed SQL Server Agent Jobs Count

The number of failed Microsoft SQL Server Agent jobs during the last minute.

FreeableMemory

Freeable Memory

The amount of available random access memory.

For MariaDB, MySQL, Oracle, and PostgreSQL DB instances, this metric reports the value of the MemAvailable field of /proc/meminfo.

FreeStorageSpace

Free Storage Space

The amount of available storage space.

MaximumUsedTransactionIDs

Maximum Used Transaction IDs

For PostgreSQL: the maximum transaction IDs that have been used.

For Aurora PostgreSQL: the age of the oldest unvacuumed transaction ID, in transactions. If this value reaches 2,146,483,648 (2^31 - 1,000,000), the database is forced into read-only mode, to avoid transaction ID wraparound. For more information, see Preventing transaction ID wraparound failures in the PostgreSQL documentation.

NetworkReceiveThroughput

Network Receive Throughput

The incoming (receive) network traffic on the DB instance, including both customer database traffic and Amazon RDS traffic used for monitoring and replication.

For Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL: the amount of network throughput received from clients by each instance in the Aurora MySQL DB cluster. This throughput doesn’t include network traffic between instances in the Aurora DB cluster and the cluster volume.

NetworkTransmitThroughput

Network Transmit Throughput

The outgoing (transmit) network traffic on the DB instance, including both customer database traffic and Amazon RDS traffic used for monitoring and replication.

For Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL: the amount of network throughput sent to clients by each instance in the Aurora DB cluster. This throughput doesn’t include network traffic between instances in the DB cluster and the cluster volume.

OldestReplicationSlotLag

Oldest Replication Slot Lag

For PostgreSQL: the lagging size of the replica lagging the most in terms of write-ahead log (WAL) data received.

ReadIOPS

Read IOPS

The average number of disk read I/O operations per second.

ReadLatency

Read Latency

The average amount of time taken per disk I/O operation.

ReadThroughput

Read Throughput

The average number of bytes read from disk per second.

ReplicaLag

Replica Lag

The amount of time a read replica DB instance lags behind the source DB instance. Applies to MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and SQL Server read replicas.

ReplicationSlotDiskUsage

Replica Slot Disk Usage

For PostgreSQL: the disk space used by replication slot files.

SwapUsage

Swap Usage

The amount of swap space used on the DB instance. This metric is not available for SQL Server.

For Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL: this metric is available for the Aurora PostgreSQL DB instance classes db.t3.medium, db.t3.large, db.r4.large, db.r4.xlarge, db.r5.large, db.r5.xlarge, db.r6g.large, and db.r6g.xlarge.

For Aurora MySQL: this metric applies only to db.t* DB instance classes.

TransactionLogsDiskUsage

Transaction Logs Disk Usage

For PostgreSQL: the disk space used by transaction logs.

For Aurora PostgreSQL: this metric is only generated when Aurora PostgreSQL is using logical replication or AWS Database Migration Service. Also, it only applies to primary instances, not replicas.

By default, Aurora PostgreSQL uses log records, not transaction logs. When transaction logs aren’t in use, the value for this metric is -1.

TransactionLogsGeneration

Transaction Logs Generation

For PostgreSQL: the size of transaction logs generated per second.

WriteIOPS

Write IOPS

The average number of disk write I/O operations per second.

For Aurora PostgreSQL: the number of Aurora storage write records generated per second. This is effectively the number of log records generated by the database. These do not correspond to 8K page writes or network packets sent.

WriteLatency

Write Latency

The average amount of time taken per disk I/O operation.

WriteThroughput

Write Throughput

The average number of bytes write from disk per second.

Performance Insights metrics

These performance metrics apply to all RDS instances.

Metric

Description

DBLoad

DB Load

The number of active sessions for the DB engine.

DBLoadCPU

DB Load CPU

The number of active sessions where the wait event type equals CPU.

DBLoadNonCPU

DB Load Non CPU

The number of active sessions where the wait event type does not equal CPU.

For Aurora instances

These metrics are for Aurora instances, see the descriptions for details of specific Aurora engine that applies to a metric.

Metric

Description

AbortedClients

Aborted Clients

For Aurora MySQL: The number of client connections did not close properly.

ActiveTransactions

Active Transactions

For Aurora MySQL: The average number of current transactions executing on an Aurora database instance per second.

By default, Aurora doesn’t enable this metric. To begin measuring this value, set innodb_monitor_enable='all' in the DB parameter group for a specific DB instance.

AuroraBinlogReplicaLag

Aurora Binlog Replica Lag

For Aurora MySQL primary instances, it’s the amount of time a replica DB cluster running on Aurora MySQL-Compatible Edition lags behind the source DB cluster.

This metric reports the value of the Seconds_Behind_Master field of the MySQL SHOW SLAVE STATUS (Aurora MySQL version 1 and 2) or SHOW REPLICA STATUS (Aurora MySQL version 3) command. This metric is useful for monitoring replica lag between Aurora DB clusters replicating across different AWS Regions. For more information, see Replicating Amazon Aurora MySQL DB clusters across AWS Regions in the AWS documentation.

AuroraReplicaLag

Aurora Replica Lag

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL replica instances - the amount of lag when replicating updates from the primary instance.

AuroraReplicaLagMaximum

Replica Lag Maximum

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL primary instances - the maximum amount of lag between the primary instance and each Aurora DB instance in the DB cluster.

AuroraReplicaLagMinimum

Replica Lag Minimum

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL primary instances - the minimum amount of lag between the primary instance and each Aurora DB instance in the DB cluster.

BacktrackWindowActual

Backtrack Window Actual

Aurora MySQL primary instances - the difference between the target backtrack window and the actual backtrack window.

BacktrackWindowAlert

Backtrack Window Alert

Aurora MySQL primary instances - the number of times that the actual backtrack window is smaller than the target backtrack window for a given period of time.

BlockedTransactions

Blocked Transactions

Aurora MySQL - the average number of transactions in the database that are blocked per second.

BufferCacheHitRatio

Buffer Cache Hit Ratio

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the percentage of requests that are served by the buffer cache.

CommitLatency

Commit Latency

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the average duration of commit operations.

CommitThroughput

Commit Throughput

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the average number of commit operations per second.

DDLLatency

DDL Latency

Aurora MySQL - the average duration of requests such as example, create, alter, and drop requests.

DDLThroughput

DDL

Aurora MySQL - the average number of DDL requests per second.

Deadlocks

Deadlocks

For Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL: the average number of deadlocks in the database per second.

DeleteLatency

Delete Latency

Aurora MySQL - the average duration of delete operations.

DeleteThroughput

Delete Throughput

Aurora MySQL - the average number of delete queries per second.

DMLLatency

DML Latency

Aurora MySQL - the average duration of inserts, updates, and deletes.

DMLThroughput

DML Throughput

Aurora MySQL - the average number of inserts, updates, and deletes per second.

EngineUptime

Engine Uptime

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the amount of time that the instance has been running.

FreeLocalStorage

Free Local Storage

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the amount of local storage available.

Unlike other DB engines, Aurora DB instances uses this metric to report the amount of storage available to each DB instance. This value depends on the DB instance class (for pricing information, see Amazon RDS Pricing in the AWS documentation.) You can increase the amount of free storage space for an instance by choosing a larger DB instance class for your instance.

InsertLatency

Insert Latency

Aurora MySQL - the average duration of insert operations.

InsertThroughput

Insert Throughput

Aurora MySQL - the average number of insert operations per second.

LoginFailures

Login Failures

Aurora MySQL - the average number of failed login attempts per second.

NetworkThroughput

Network Throughput

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the amount of network throughput both received from and transmitted to clients by each instance in the Aurora MySQL DB cluster. This throughput doesn’t include network traffic between instances in the DB cluster and the cluster volume.

NumBinaryLogFiles

Number of Binary Log Files

Aurora MySQL - the number of binlog files generated.

Queries

Queries

Aurora MySQL - the average number of queries executed per second.

RDSToAuroraPostgreSQLReplicaLag

RDS to Aurora PostgreSQL Replica Lag

Aurora PostgreSQL replicas - the lag when replicating updates from the primary RDS PostgreSQL instance to other nodes in the cluster.

ResultSetCacheHitRatio

Result Set Cache Hit Ratio

For Aurora MySQL: the percentage of requests that are served by the Resultset cache.

RollbackSegmentHistoryListLength

Rollback Segment History List Length

Aurora MySQL - the undo logs that record committed transactions with delete-marked records. These records are scheduled to be processed by the InnoDB purge operation.

RowLockTime

Row Lock Time

Aurora MySQL - the total time spent acquiring row locks for InnoDB tables.

SelectLatency

Select Latency

Aurora MySQL - the average amount of time for select operations.

SelectThroughput

Select Throughput

Aurora MySQL - the average number of select queries per second.

StorageNetworkReceiveThroughput

Network Receive Throughput

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the amount of network throughput received from the Aurora storage subsystem by each instance in the DB cluster.

StorageNetworkThroughput

Network Throughput

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the amount of network throughput received from and sent to the Aurora storage subsystem by each instance in the Aurora MySQL DB cluster.

StorageNetworkTransmitThroughput

Network Transmit Throughput

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL - the amount of network throughput sent to the Aurora storage subsystem by each instance in the Aurora MySQL DB cluster.

SumBinaryLogSize

Sum of Binary Log Sizes

For Aurora MySQL: the total size of the binlog files.

UpdateLatency

Update Latency

For Aurora MySQL: the average amount of time taken for update operations.

UpdateThroughput

Update Throughput

For Aurora MySQL: the average number of updates per second.

RDS cluster metrics

These metrics apply to RDS clusters. Some apply only to Aurora MySQL and others apply to both Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL.

Aurora MySQL

Metric

Description

AuroraVolumeBytesLeftTotal

Aurora Volume Bytes Left Total

The remaining available space for the cluster volume. As the cluster volume grows, this value decreases. If it reaches zero, the cluster reports an out-of-space error.

If you want to detect whether your Aurora cluster is approaching the size limit of 128 tebibytes (TiB), this value is simpler and more reliable to monitor than VolumeBytesUsed. AuroraVolumeBytesLeftTotal takes into account storage used for internal housekeeping and other allocations that don’t affect your storage billing.

This parameter is available in more recent Aurora versions. For Aurora MySQL with MySQL 5.6 compatibility, use Aurora version 1.19.5 or higher. For Aurora MySQL with MySQL 5.7 compatibility, use Aurora version 2.04.5 or higher.

BacktrackChangeRecordsCreationRate

Backtrack Change Records Creation Rate

The number of backtrack change records created over 5 minutes for your DB cluster.

BacktrackChangeRecordsStored

Backtrack Change Records Stored

The number of backtrack change records used by your DB cluster.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

Metric

Description

AuroraGlobalDBDataTransferBytes

Aurora Global DB Data Transfer Bytes

In an Aurora Global Database, the amount of redo log data transferred from the master AWS Region to a secondary AWS Region.

AuroraGlobalDBProgressLag

Aurora Global DB Processing Lag

In an Aurora Global Database, the measure of how far the secondary cluster is behind the primary cluster for both user transactions and system transactions.

AuroraGlobalDBReplicatedWriteIO

Aurora Global DB Replicated Write IO

In an Aurora Global Database, the number of write I/O operations replicated from the primary AWS Region to the cluster volume in a secondary AWS Region. The billing calculations for the secondary AWS Regions in a global database use VolumeWriteIOPS to account for writes performed within the cluster. The billing calculations for the primary AWS Region in a global database use VolumeWriteIOPS to account for the write activity within that cluster, and AuroraGlobalDBReplicatedWriteIO to account for cross-Region replication within the global database.

AuroraGlobalDBReplicationLag

Aurora Global DB Replication Lag

For an Aurora Global Database, the amount of lag when replicating updates from the primary AWS Region.

AuroraGlobalDBRPOLag

Aurora Global DB RPO Lag

In an Aurora Global Database, the recovery point objective (RPO) lag time. This metric measures how far the secondary cluster is behind the primary cluster for user transactions.

BackupRetentionPeriodStorageUsed

Backup Retention Period Storage Used

The total amount of backup storage used to support the point-in-time restore feature within the Aurora DB cluster’s backup retention window. This amount is included in the total reported by the TotalBackupStorageBilled metric. It is computed separately for each Aurora cluster. For instructions, see Understanding Aurora backup storage usage in the AWS documentation.

ServerlessDatabaseCapacity

Serverless Database Capacity

The current capacity of an Aurora Serverless v1 DB cluster.

SnapshotStorageUsed

Snapshot Storage Used

The total amount of backup storage consumed by all Aurora snapshots for an Aurora DB cluster outside its backup retention window. This amount is included in the total reported by the TotalBackupStorageBilled metric. It is computed separately for each Aurora cluster. For instructions, see Understanding Aurora backup storage usage in the AWS documentation.

TotalBackupStorageBilled

Total Backup Storage Used

The total amount of backup storage in bytes for which you are billed for a given Aurora DB cluster. The metric includes the backup storage measured by the BackupRetentionPeriodStorageUsed and SnapshotStorageUsed metrics. This metric is computed separately for each Aurora cluster. For instructions, see Understanding Aurora backup storage usage in the AWS documentation.

VolumeBytesUsed

Volume Bytes Used

The amount of storage used by your Aurora DB instance.

This value affects the cost of the Aurora DB cluster (for pricing information, see Amazon RDS Pricing in the AWS documentation.)

This value doesn’t reflect some internal storage allocations that don’t affect storage billing. Thus, you can anticipate out-of-space issues more accurately by testing whether AuroraVolumeBytesLeftTotal is approaching zero instead of comparing VolumeBytesUsed against the storage limit of 128 TiB.

VolumeReadIOPs

Volume Read IOPS

The number of billed read I/O operations from a cluster volume within a 5-minute interval.

Billed read operations are calculated at the cluster volume level, aggregated from all instances in the Aurora DB cluster, and then reported at 5-minute intervals. The value is calculated by taking the value of theRead operations metric over a 5-minute period. You can determine the number of billed read operations per second by taking the value of the Billed read operations metric and dividing it by 300 seconds. For example, if the Billed read operations returns 13,686, then the billed read operations per second is 45 (13,686 / 300 = 45.62).

You accrue billed read operations for queries that request database pages that aren’t in the buffer cache and must be loaded from storage. You might see spikes in billed read operations as query results are read from storage and then loaded into the buffer cache.

Tip: if your Aurora MySQL cluster uses a parallel query, you might see an increase in VolumeReadIOPS values. Parallel queries don’t use the buffer pool. Thus, although the queries are fast, this optimized processing can result in an increase in read operations and associated charges.

VolumeWriteIOPs

Volume Write IOPS

The number of write disk I/O operations to the cluster volume, reported at 5-minute intervals. For a detailed description of billed write operations calculations, see the VolumeReadIOPs metric.